Image in: Rocha (1997, p. 34)
“The ladder of empowerment is a typology, constructed with the intent of disentangling the web of conflicting empowerment theory. This typology serves a dual purpose. First, it provides a coherent way of looking at empowerment theories that allows for complexity and variant and that clarifies their differences and similarities. Second, the typology can be used by practitioners to clarify their own goals and strategies concerning empowerment; by community organizations to gain a clearer conceptual view of how empowerment can be realized; and by local government to evaluate methods and strategies used by community organizations (especially relevant for planners concerned with the allocation of block grant funds or the distribution of other federal funds).”
Rocha, E. M. (1997). A ladder of empowerment. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 17(1), 31-44.